Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Top Choices of Essay Topics for Much Ado about Nothing From the start of the plot it's known that Benedick and Beatrice are in some kind of adversary tail end together. Puck is just that, nice and bad chaos. On the flip side, Benedick has almost the very same sentiments when it has to do with marriage. He never wished to give into other people's ideas, and that was why he didn't wish to give in the concept that marriage might be a fantastic thing in an individual's life. They are in fact attempting to let them discover their present love to one another. Women have the ability to use the simple fact that men can't be completely certain of a wife's fidelity. What You Don't Know About Essay Topics for Much Ado about Nothing Adolescents are emotionally driven during the beginning of puberty. Important vital study. The Basics of Essay Topics for Much Ado about Nothing 200 years back, 92% of earth lived in extreme poverty. Manning died in 1892 at age eighty-four. Besides Cla udio's vengeful and enraged attitude sometimes, he's also a really determined human being who is capable of great exertions to accomplish a goal. Courage is a difficult matter to figure. Remember your success is dependent significantly on the theme you pick, so be sure it's something exciting and thought-provoking. The Chronicles of Essay Topics for Much Ado about Nothing Benedick is a buddy of Don Pedro who's a confirmed bachelor, he fails to understand why anyone would want to go married. In addition, he didn't enjoy the notion of marriage. When you have honor you'll have courage but it doesn't work the other way around. As Hero can be quite timid in the existence of a guy, she doesn't answer to Claudio's accusations against her. This essay is likely to end up being 300 to 600 words, so in case you pick solid examples and make certain you're very clear in your explanations of things, it won't tricky to reach. An essay conclusion is a type of a high point of your entire analysis, and thus do your very best to make it sound strong, logical, and convincing. It's required, but if you're doing a review of the essay rather than a summary. It's a one-sentence overview of the full text your essay summarizes. Don't be scared to talk about your ideas as part of creative procedure and remember there's just one approach to reach the desired goals receiving papers which have been meticulously checked, reviewed and proofread. As our group of writers is pretty big, we always have free writers prepared to bring a manageable and well-paid purchase. Many students underestimate the significance of this seemingly minor detail, but actually, it is but one of the most vital essay writing tools. While writing an essay about movie you must keep in mind that there are lots of elements that you need to include if you wish to construct a coherent analysis. But this play was classified among Shakespeare's comedies. In the very first reading you need to receive the overall notion of the essay. Write an essay comparing the plots of two unique films frequently categorized inside the same genre. A film isn't necessarily superior than a stage creation, but instead a different type of experience with the exact same story material. Movie Portrayals of Adolescence The media have a noticeable impact on how folks perceive and think. Next, only a normal movie. Be creative with your thoughts and don't be scared to talk about any hot topics associated with the movie. Vital Pieces of Essay Topics for Much Ado about Nothing If you encounter research problems, the Brandman University Coordinator of Library Services is going to be delighted to provide help. You're totally free to use our free papers and tell friends and family about our website. It research papers totally free download. Essay tips for a modest proposal.
Friday, May 15, 2020
Introduction: A Brief Biography of Sigmund Freud Ã¢â¬Å"A trailblazer of modern-day psychology,Ã¢â¬ Sigmund Freud presented new ways of thinking about human nature, pioneered new techniques of understanding human behavior, and created the most comprehensive theory of personality and psychotherapy ever developed (Himmat, 1997). Sigmund Freud was born on the sixth of May in 1856 in what is now Pribor in the Czech Republic, or at the time, Freiberg, a rural town in Moravia. The firstborn son of a merchant, FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s parents made an effort to foster his intellectual capacities despite being faced with financial difficulties. From an early age Freud had many interests and talents, but his career choices were limited away from his passion of medical research due to his familyÃ¢â¬â¢s Jewish background, even though he was non-practicing, and his limited funds. Instead of research, Freud studied private practice medicine at the University of Vienna in 1873. After graduation, Freud worked at the Vienna General Hospital where he worked with Josef Breuer in creating a treatment for hysteria by hypnosis and served as a research assistant at the Institute of Physiology. In 1881, Freud obtained his doctorateÃ¢â¬â¢s degree in medicine. Then in 1885, Freud traveled to Paris on a one year scholarship to be a student of Jean Charcot, a neurologist. Upon returning to Vienna in 1886, Freud created his own private practice that specialized in brain and nervous disorders. Later that same year, Freud married MarthaShow MoreRelatedSigmund Freud: A Very Brief Biography1582 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages INTRO Sigmund Freud is considered one of the most influential figures in modern psychology. He is best known as the father of psychoanalysis. He developed several important theories of personality, including the theories of mind, the id, the ego, and the superego, life and death instincts, psychosexual development, and defense mechanisms. He also published many books that helped shape psychology into what it is today. EARLY LIFE Sigismund Schlomo Freud was born in Moravia, Czech RepublicRead MorePsychoanalysis of Holden Caulfield1173 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesa psychoanalytical theory and therapy that aims to treat mental disorders by investigating the conscious and unconscious elements in a human mind by bringing fears to the conscious mind. According to Sigmund Freud, Ã¢â¬Å"The unconscious silently directs the thoughts and behavior of the individualÃ¢â¬ (Freud 95). Holden Caulfield, the main character in J.D SalingerÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, The Catcher in the Rye, is sixteen years old and does not act his own age for he is stuck in his own private world, filled with painRead MoreEdward Bernays Essay749 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesRelations. According to Stuart Ewan (1996) at the start of 1910Ã¢â¬â¢s Bernays was the most significant pioneer of American Public Relations. Even though his biography was not very popular, he was a vital part of the reason of the configuration of the present world. Bernays was born in Vienna 1891; according to Stuart Ewan (1996) Sigmund Freud was Bernays uncle. His family background astonished him and gave him a vast amount of power of information and concepts. According to James Sandrolini. 2007Read MorePsychology: Analysis of Lindsay Lohans Personality1966 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Lindsay Lohan: Personality Analysis I will present a brief biography of Lindsay Lohan and then examine her personality from the perspective of FreudÃ¢â¬Å¸s Psychoanalytic Theory Biography Lindsay Morgan Lohan was born on July 2, 1986, the daughter of Donata (Sullivan) and Michael Douglas Lohan. Followed by the birth of Lindsay were two brothers, Michael and Dakota, and a sister, Aliana. .The start of LindsayÃ¢â¬Å¸s career began as a Ford Model at three years old. In 1996 she obtained her first majorRead MoreComparing and Contrasting Psychoanalytic and Existential/Humanistic Perspectives4364 Words Ã |Ã 18 Pagesthe psychoanalytic perspective and the existential and humanistic perspectives. Structures of the Psychoanalytic and Existential/Humanistic Perspectives The psychoanalytic perspective contains the structures of the Id, Superego, and the Ego. Freud defined the Id as the lustful and aggressive part of our personality and works on the pleasure principle in which it satisfies its pleasure and reduces inner tension (Dennen, 1896). This energy is also known as libido, the energy of life instinctsRead MoreThe Developmental Theory Created By Erik Erikson1990 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesAbstract This paper explores the developmental theory created by Erik Erikson, which focuses on the major psychosocial dilemmas that a person struggles with over the course of their entire life. Following a brief biography of EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s life, the paper will touch upon the 8 stages between birth and death wherein the most psychologically significant of these dilemmas take place. It will discuss the psychological impact of trust versus mistrust, autonomy versus shame and doubt, initiative versus guiltRead MoreTheories Of Personality And Personality Theory4645 Words Ã |Ã 19 Pagesin general or suiting the often immediate needs of individual clients, and working within their own penchants and aptitudes and specialists. AdlerÃ¢â¬â¢s Biography Alfred Adler was born in Vienna in 1870, of Jewish parents According to Rietveld (2004) and died in 1937. Adler was the father of the model of the inferiority complex. In 1902, Sigmund Freud invited him to join a psychoanalytic discussion group. Adler developed the Leader of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society, 1910.In 1912, Alfred Adler originatedRead MoreMona Lisa and Last Supper3080 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagesfew other works of art are as romanticized, celebrated, or reproduced. The painting shows a woman looking out at the viewer with what is described as an enigmatic smile. Title of the painting The title Mona Lisa stems from the Giorgio Vasari biography of Leonardo da Vinci, published 31 years after Leonardos death. In it, he identified the sitter as Lisa, the wife of wealthy Florentine businessman Francesco del Giocondo. Mona is a common Italian contraction of madonna, meaning my lady, theRead MoreSeminar: Literary Theory Applied to H.P. Lovecraft-Notably Ã¢â¬Å"the Beast in the CaveÃ¢â¬ 6821 Words Ã |Ã 28 Pagesdespite prostituting his writing to fit the demand of the public. This devotion may have isolated him in his lifetime, but has helped stir fanatic admiration post humorously. My introduction to the literature of H.P. Lovecraft came in the form of brief comments about his work on a late-night television talk-show. The host and his guest were discussing how the fiction of Lovecraft helped influence the latest horror movie. With that little nod from Hollywood, I decided to read the first short storyRead MorePsy 244 Essay10464 Words Ã |Ã 42 Pagesand to the study of adolescence. Describe these contributions. Ã¯Æ' leader of the Ã¢â¬Å"child study movementÃ¢â¬ ; promoted non-experimental studies of infants, children, and youth employing: Ã¢â¬Å"baby biographiesÃ¢â¬ , questionnaires, and observations 15. Other names (and terms) with which you should be familiar: Sigmund Freud: psychodynamic theoryÃ¢â¬âstages and is deteremined largly by biologically based drives shaped by encounters with the environment and through the interaction of the personality three compnents-
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
DETAILED OVERVIEW OF ACCOUNTING TRANSACTIONS AND ACCOUNTING POLICIES FOLLOWED BY TVS SONS LIMITED PETTY CASH VOUCHERS (PCV) When it is a petty cash voucher it refers to petty expenses, in TVS SONS it includes Reimbursement of travelling expenses incurred by the supplier, Mobile charges, Xerox expenses, expenses incurred for Marriage functions, Cost of tender document purchase, Receiving and Delivery (RD) charges and Courier charges. The following are some of the items that are found in these vouchers. Ã¯ ¶ Employee code Ã¯ ¶ Employee name Ã¯ ¶ Branch name and Date of billing Ã¯ ¶ Place and Purpose of journey Ã¯ ¶ Start date and time Ã¯ ¶ Return date and time Ã¯ ¶ Boarding allowance Ã¯ ¶ Lodging expenses Ã¯ ¶ Vehicle number Ã¯ ¶ Travelling by own/others Ã¯ ¶ Number of kilometre ran along with the appropriate rates Ã¯ ¶ Any other expenses Ã¯ ¶ Account number Ã¯ ¶ Mobile number Ã¯ ¶ Number of calls made Ã¯ ¶ Number of hours/ minutes used along with the appropriate rates Ã¯ ¶ SBU and Function ( Sale or Service) All these details should be disclosed with the bill. If it is for travelling expenses, all the bills that are given during the journey should be disclosed. If it is for mobile expenses, mobile bill with respect to the company should be enclosed and so on for other expenses. CORPORATE AND EXPERTISE COST This indicates the cost incurred for President of the company, JMD of the company. In other words it is the cost incurred for higher authorities in TVS SONS. FUNCTION OVERHEAD Function overhead refers toShow MoreRelatedComparing the Gaap and Ifrs1051 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIntroduction There have been proposals that have been working on with regard to the replacement of GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles) with IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standards) as used in the accounting and financial reporting aspects. Such convergence requires that the functions of the GAAP standards be added to the IFRS. The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) developed the IFRS which is a less-detailed financial reporting system. This paper seeks to analyzeRead MoreSummary of Research for Accounting Changes and Error Analysis1143 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSummary on Research for Accounting Changes and Error Analysis Companies have always faced issues of how to reflect changes in accounting methods and error corrections in financial statements. A change in accounting principle results when an entity adopts a generally accepted accounting principle different from the one it used previously (Hall 2007). A presumption exists that an accounting principle once adopted shall not be changed in accounting for events and transactions of a similar type (FinancialRead MoreAccrual Basis Accounting Essay example786 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAccrual Basis Accounting Accrual accounting is a system of accounting that is based on the accrual principal accounting. This principal requires revenue to be recognized and recorded when earned. Expenses are to be recorded when they occur. The accrual basis of accounting is used by most companies. Very small businesses and individuals use cash basis accounting. The major distinction between the accrual and the cash basis of accounting is when revenue and expenses are recognized. When theRead MoreFinancial Statement Disclosure Notes Under Us Gaap Essay801 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFinancial statement Disclosure Notes under US GAAP Financial statement Disclosure Notes under US GAAP the full disclosure principle is one of the basic accounting principles, which is an exchange of all material information integral to financial information for the company. Companies should provide disclosure notes when they provide the financial statement. Full disclosure notes give full information about the statements for investors and creditors to make decisions because this note is connectedRead MoreAccounting Analysis On Financial Accounting1185 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAccounting has many branches that it can be divided into. It can be divided into several areas of activities. Accountings main branches are financial accounting, Management accounting, Cost accounting, Auditing, Tax accounting, Accounting systems, Fiduciary accounting and Forensic accounting. Financial accounting: This branch of accounting measureÃ¢â¬â¢s and records the transactions of a business. Financial accounting focuses on the preparation of the five basic financial statements namely statementsRead MoreThe Basic Principles of Accounting - 11176 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Basic Principles of Accounting Cherry Marler ACCT205-1203A-17, IP-1 Instructor Jeffery Bloom June 06, 2012 Abstract Accounting is used for several purposes. Investors, creditors, and individuals use accounting to see whether a business is successful or not. Managers and employees use accounting to make decisions on certain objectives. There are four main statements used in accounting: The balance sheet, income statement, the statement of retained earnings, and the statement of cashRead MoreCase Summary : Lehman Brother Holdings, Inc. Essay1662 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand their auditing firm Ernst Young (EY) liable. The report revealed that Lehman was using multibillion-dollar Ã¢â¬Å"accounting-motivatedÃ¢â¬ transactions to embellish their companyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial data and reducing the net leverage ratio (dividing total assets by total stockholderÃ¢â¬â¢s equity), which interested parties utilized to measure the financial health of the company. These transactions known as Ã¢â¬Å"Repo 105sÃ¢â¬ is common practice where one party sells securities to another party while making a contractualRead MoreProcurement and Accounting Issues1305 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAbstract In this case of Toy Central Cooperation the aim is to evaluate company risks and accounting issues facing a Toy Company, and establish how these issues would transform into required particular audit risks. In performing the analyses, there is need to draw on all-purpose information of toys and perhaps to investigate a number of of the accounting procedure issues confronting the Toy Company. Throughout this evaluation and analyses, there is a necessity for the Company to see a needRead MoreAccounting Systems Essay examples1635 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Accounting information Ã¢â¬â Coursework Some academics believe that there is a direct relationship between accounting information systems and organisations. It is thought there is a two-way system whereby organisations shape their accounting information systems but are also shaped by them. This report will look at the highlighted relationship and in the context of the information literacy and management skills that are needed by an accountancy graduate in the 21st Century. The report will also coverRead MoreCommercial Accounting and Generally Accepted Accounting Principles649 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesCommercial Accounting and General Accepted Accounting Principles: Commercial accounting is an accounting principle that is based on profit and loss, which is also known as profit accounting. One of the major aspects of this accounting principle is that the reporting for an organization is directed to its investors. Through the principles of commercial accounting, tax cases judges generally seek to establish whether the profits were computed based on the ordinary commercial principles as the first
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Describe about the Corporate Finance for Funding and Capital Structure. Answer: Introduction Corporate Finance is the field of finance which deals with the source of funding and capital structure of the organizations. The main objectives of the corporate finance are to increase the value of the company to the stakeholders of the firm and the optimal allocation of the financial resources. Wesfarmers has been chosen for this report. 1: Wesfarmers is a conglomerate company in Australia. The company has a lot of operations in various field of business like retail, coal mining, fertilizing, chemicals and many others. Wesfarmers has a very attractive dividend policy for their shareholders. As per the adopted dividend policy of Wesfarmers, the company believes in delivering growing dividends each tear. It defies that the company use to increase the percentage of dividends each and every year. However, the amount of dividend depends on various factors like the earning of the company, cash flows and available franking credits. Over the years, the company has been giving a significant amount of money as the dividend. Wesfarmers has given $ 1,070 million in the year 2015 and $ 1,247 million in the year 2016 as the final dividend to its shareholders (www.wesfarmers.com.au 2016). Payout Ratio (2015) = Dividends/Net Income = $ 1,247 million/$ 2,440 million = 0.51 (approx) Payout Ratio (2016) = Dividends/Net Income = $ 1,070 million/$ 407 million = 2.63 (approx) Dividend Yield for the year 2015 was 4.74 per cent and for the year 2016 was 4.74 also. 2: The most appropriate way to convey the financial information to the market is the annual report of the company. A well designed annual report of a company reflects the true image of the financial position of that company. In this case, the dividend policy is an important tool. A strong dividend policy helps to create a good image of the company to the investors. In the case of Wesfarmers, the company has declared its dividend policy in the annual report of the year 2016. As per the policy, Wesfarmers wants to increase the rate of dividend each year based on the financial performance of the company (Rondi et al. 2013). The marginal stockholders of the company are the other companies, groups, individuals and many others (www.wesfarmers.com.au 2016). As per annual reports of the company, the company use to give as dividends as well as issue buyback shares. Wesfarmers has a more lucrative dividend policy compared to the other firms in the same sector. 3: Wesfarmers is a company which is well known for its remuneration structure for the directors and the executives. The company follows a certain structure while giving remuneration and incentives to the senior management. The remuneration structure of Wesfarmers for the senior management is consists of three parts. They are the fixed annual remuneration, short term annual incentives and long term annual incentives (McNulty, Florackis and Ormrod 2013). The structure implies that the senior management is subjected to receive a fixed portion of remuneration irrespective of their performance. On the other hand, there is some short term as well as long term incentive plans for the senior management of the company. As per the guideline principles, the incentive structure for the senior managers should in such a way that it encourages the senior management act as the owners of the company. The short term and long term incentives are given to the senior management as per their performance t o run the business of Wesfarmers (Pepper, Gore and Crossman 2013). 4: The main objective of Wesfarmers is to create a strong portfolio of business that will provide the satisfactory return to the investors of the company (www.wesfarmers.com.au 2016). There is a strong relationship between the objective of the organization and the remuneration plan of the senior management of Wesfarmers. The objectives are feasible and can be benefitted by the remuneration plan as the success of an organization depends on the performance of the senior management team. Looking at the improving economic condition of Australia, the current economic condition of Wesfarmers is growing towards high. However, the economic recession will hinder the way of the plan. The shareholders will take the remuneration plan in a good way as the plan will help them to gain higher returns; but there are some economic critics who can react to the plan in an adverse way. Conclusion As per the whole report, it can be seen that Wesfarmers has a dividend policy which allows the shareholders to gain more percentage of dividends every year. On the other hand, remuneration and incentive plan of Wesfarmers helps to achieve the ultimate objective of the company. References McNulty, T., Florackis, C. and Ormrod, P., 2013. Boards of directors and financial risk during the credit crisis.Corporate Governance: An International Review,21(1), pp.58-78. Pepper, A., Gore, J. and Crossman, A., 2013. Are long?term incentive plans an effective and efficient way of motivating senior executives?.Human Resource Management Journal,23(1), pp.36-51. Rondi, L., Cambini, C., Bremberger, F. and Gugler, K., 2013.Dividend Policy in Regulated Firms. University Library of Munich, Germany. Wesfarmers.com.au. (2016).docs/default-source/reports/2016-annual-report.pdf?sfvrsn=8. [online] Available at: https://www.wesfarmers.com.au/docs/default-source/reports/2016-annual-report.pdf?sfvrsn=8 [Accessed 22 Oct. 2016]. Wesfarmers.com.au. (2016).Investors. [online] Available at: https://www.wesfarmers.com.au/investor-centre [Accessed 22 Oct. 2016]. Wesfarmers.com.au. (2016).Who we are. [online] Available at: https://www.wesfarmers.com.au/who-we-are/who-we-are [Accessed 22 Oct. 2016].
Wednesday, April 15, 2020
Inspiration for me comes to from everything that is happening around me. Not only do I believe dance is a sport, but an art. Dance is such a special art, it involves music, movement and you mind. The struggles I have, the diversity I face, the love and happiness. I am a dancer, IÃ¢â¬â¢m a creator. I create what I feel, what I see, the world around me is my inspiration. My emotions are the main contributor they are the inspiration for everything I do. I have such strength and determination to follow my heart. The inspiration from this is a sad start but one I chose to fight. Many around me think my idea of dancing for a lifetime is foolish; my strength comes from those who donÃ¢â¬â¢t believe in their hearts. I follow my heart because it is the inspiration for everything I do. Not only am I dancer but a musician. We will write a custom essay sample on Insperation or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The music I write is all that is happening around me and how I deal. I hope my performances provide inspiration for those who see and experience what I do. I dance from experience, from my world and somewhere someone is going through the same exact things. With each performance I try to make people feel so I can inspire.
Thursday, March 12, 2020
Bilingualism and Multilingualism Language is the influential aspect which determines the peculiarities of the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s interactions in society. It is possible to discuss the usage of language for communication from psychological, linguistic, and sociolinguistic perspectives because language plays an enormous role in the formation of human identity.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Bilingualism and Multilingualism specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The peculiar features of the social development influence the progress of the situation when today many people are considered as bilingual or multilingual. Economical, political, cultural and social shifts to the development of international economy and integration caused the fact that the notions of bilingualism and multilingualism which are closely connected with the phenomenon of globalization became important aspects of a modern society. To understand the peculiarities of this tendency, it is neces sary to examine the definitions of bilingualism and multilingualism and determine the features in which these notions are similar or different. The issue of defining such notions as bilingualism and multilingualism is widely discussed by many researchers nowadays. The main difference of their approaches is in the consideration of these notions as similar or different in relation to their major characteristics. In her work, Pavlenko accentuates the fact that traditionally bilingualism and multilingualism are discussed as the same notions that is why she uses use the term Ã¢â¬ËbilingualismÃ¢â¬â¢ in order to study the aspects of bi- and multilingualism with paying attention only to the number of languages used by a speaker (Pavlenko, 2006). According to this idea, bilingualism should be defined as the phenomenon when people use two languages to realize their social interactions, and multilingualism is the phenomenon when people use more than two languages to complete their social n eeds (Altarriba Heredia, 2008).Advertising Looking for essay on linguistics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, to discuss the aspects of bilingualism and multilingualism, it is necessary to focus on the factor of the social motivation and psychological peculiarities of the ability to use two or more languages for interactions. To discuss the notions as the same, it is necessary to state that bi/multilingualism is a complex phenomenon which is influenced by social and psychological factors and also affects the structure of the languages used. This phenomenon is connected with the notion of codes. Thus, bilingualism is a result of Ã¢â¬Å"psycholinguistic functioning of the mind when having two codesÃ¢â¬ (Ceroz Gorter, 2011, p. 357). Nevertheless, it is also possible to notice that multilingualism is a result of using more than two language codes. The usage of two or more codes results in developing code-mix ing and code-switching during the communication process (Ceroz Gorter, 2011). The peculiar features of code-mixing and code-switching are widely discussed by those researchers who support the opinion that bilingualism and multilingualism cannot be considered as the same notions. The base for their arguments is two views known as the Ã¢â¬ËfractionalÃ¢â¬â¢ view and Ã¢â¬ËholisticÃ¢â¬â¢ view (Perani Abutalebi, 2005). According to the first perspective, a bilingual is a person who interacts as two monolinguals depending on definite circumstances (Altarriba Heredia, 2008). The Ã¢â¬ËholisticÃ¢â¬â¢ view is more general and states that the languages used are interdependent and influence each other. Thus, the person who uses them should be considered as a unique personality following definite sociolinguistic peculiarities. Focusing on these two views, sociolinguists and psychologists accentuate that code- switching as the selection of definite linguistic elements in languages t o use is more typical for bilinguals and code-mixing is more typical for multilingual persons who combine the elements of many languages in one speech to complete the conversation goal (Myers-Scotton, 2006). Moreover, it is significant to pay attention to such points as the types of bi/multilingualism and their differences. Researchers define circumstantial bilingualism as the personÃ¢â¬â¢s usage of two languages according to the situation of communication and other socio-environmental factors which influenced the necessity to learn the second language (De Bot, Lowie, Verspoor, 2008).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Bilingualism and Multilingualism specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Circumstantial multilingualism can develop on the base of previous bilingualism under the definite living circumstances. That is why it is almost impossible to determine any strict differences in these types. Sequential bilingualism is based on the fact bilinguals develop some proficiency in their native language and then learn the second language. Thus, their knowledge about the native language can influence their acquiring the second language. The next stage after acquiring the second language can be multilingualism when a person studies languages sequentially. Thus, there are no obvious differences in sequential bilingualism and sequential multilingualism. The only fact which can influence the peculiarities of multilingual personsÃ¢â¬â¢ interactions is the ability to learn languages more effectively with using the knowledge about the first two or more languages (Wei Moyer, 2008). Passive bi/multilingualism is characterized by a personÃ¢â¬â¢s knowing two or more languages, but active usage in communication of only one of them (Paradis Navarro, 2003). Thus, the peculiarities of circumstantial, sequential, and passive bi/multilingualism cannot be considered as decisive for determining the differences in usin g the notions. Those researchers who develop the idea that bilingualism and multilingualism are similar notions accentuate the fact of Ã¢â¬Ësoft boundariesÃ¢â¬â¢ between languages which are typical both for bilinguals and multilingual persons (Ceroz Gorter, 2011). Nevertheless, the other linguists argue that because of predominantly circumstantial character of bilingualism, Ã¢â¬Ësoft boundariesÃ¢â¬â¢ between languages are more typical for the multilingual practice (Myers-Scotton, 2006). To determine the differences and similarities in the notions of bilingualism and multilingualism, it is possible to provide the general definition which is based on the opinion that a multilingual person differs from a bilingual only in the number of languages he knows. Moreover, multilingualism can also include the concept of bilingualism as the certain type of the phenomenon.Advertising Looking for essay on linguistics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, according to the Ã¢â¬ËholisticÃ¢â¬â¢ view with focusing on such aspects as code-mixing and Ã¢â¬Ësoft boundariesÃ¢â¬â¢ between languages, it is possible to define a multilingual person as a man who uses more than two languages for realizing everyday social interactions. The main peculiarities of multilingual persons is the effective usage of more than two languages as the combination of codes (code-mixing) in order to achieve the goal of communication in spite of environmental factors. Multilingual persons differ from bilinguals in such aspects as the intensity of interdependence of the languages used, forming a unique personality from the psychological and sociolinguistic perspectives, and the usage of two or more languages and their combinations depending on their effectiveness according to the communicative goal. References Altarriba, J. Heredia, R. R. (2008). An introduction to bilingualism: Principles and Processes. USA: Psychology Press. Ceroz, J. Gorter, D. (2011). Focus on multilingualism: A study of trilingual writing. The Modern Language Journal, 95(iii), 356-369. De Bot, K., Lowie, W., Verspoor, M. (2007). A dynamic systems theory approach to second language acquisition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 10, 7Ã¢â¬â21. Myers-Scotton, C. (2006). Multiple voices. USA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Paradis, M. Navarro, S. (2003). Subject realization and crosslinguistic interference in the bilingual acquisition of Spanish and English: What is the role of the input? Journal of Child Language, 30, 371Ã¢â¬â393. Pavlenko, A. (2006). Bilingual minds. USA: Multilingual Matters Ltd. Perani, D. Abutalebi, J. (2005). Neural basis of first and second language processing. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 15, 202Ã¢â¬â206. Wei, L. Moyer, M. G. (2008). The Blackwell guide to research methods in bilingualism and multilingualism. USA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
Choose a topic - Essay Example These movements not only struggled to receive formal recognition by the Kennedy administration through legislation, but also needed equal access to all benefits of the burgeoning American economy. Consequently, this essay intends to explain how assassination of Martin Luther king Jr. was a major blow to black movements in America and parts of the world characterized by racial discrimination and segregation. Evidences to support arguments in the essay are quoted from two primary sources namely Martin Luther King Jr., Letter from Birmingham Jail written in 1963 and Robert F. KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s Speech on the Assassination The black movements were at their prime in mid-19th Century, a time when racial discrimination and segregation was at its worse. During this period, Martin Luther King was the pioneer of the strategy and vision of a non-violent campaign by black movements against racism. His strategy argued that it was the moral responsibility of people to break unjust laws. As he notes, Ã¢â¬Å"In any nonviolent campaign there are four basic steps: collection of the facts to determine whether injustices exist; negotiation; self-purification; and direct action. We have gone through all these steps in Birmingham. There can be no gain saying the fact that racial injustice engulfs this community. Birmingham is probably the most thoroughly segregated city in the United States. Its ugly record of brutality is widely known.Ã¢â¬ (The King Center 1). Moreover, Assassination of Martin Luther King was a sad occurrence to white people alike. White people also participated in civil rights movements in the 1960s when they expanded their grievances to include equality of all in society. During the 1960s, many whites were also discriminated in accessing the benefits realized from the expanding American economy. As a result, the readily joined Martin Luther King Jr.Ã¢â¬â¢s strategy of the nonviolent campaign, and this is noticeable in